DR Congo Conflict: Chronolgy of Events
August 1998 - September 2000
16 October 2000
UN Security Council meeting to review MONUC's mandate (26 September).
Government allows UN to deploy peacekeepers to all areas under its control (24 August).
Kabila sets up a 300 member Transitional Parliament.
Tensions between old allies Rwanda and Uganda backing different factions in Kisangani erupts into the worst fighting yet seen in the Congolese city. The adversaries later agree to leave the city in a UN-brokered deal.
Heavy fighting resumes in Kisangani.
Congo closes Sir Ketumile Masire (Neutral Facilitator 's) office (20 June).
Release/exchange of prisoners of war (18 June).
Adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1304 (16 June).
Parties in the DRC conflict agree to release prisoners of war (2 June).
New DRC truce replaces the frequently breached agreement signed in 1999 (14 April).
Disengagement Plan in Kampala - to bolster the peace process (8 April).
Brutal ethnic fighting erupts between communities in the rebel-held east.
United Nations Security Council authorises through Resolution 1291 a 5,500-strong UN force - including 5,000 soldiers - to monitor the ceasefire (24 February).
Congo's war within a war (Uganda and Rwanda fighting in Congo).
Summit Meeting of parties to the ceasefire agreement in Lusaka. The meeting revises the calendar of implementation (23 February).
UN talks on DRC (24 January).
SADC Extra Ordinary Summit on the DRC is held in Maputo (11 January).
Fighting intensifies in the north, US envoy Richard Holbrooke visits the region attempting to get peace back on track.
Appointment of Sir Ketumile Masire as facilitator of the inter-Congolese political negotiations (19 December).
The renewed fighting in the Congo threatens to leave the Lusaka agreement in tatters.
Rebels lose northern town (3 December).
UN and OAU advance teams arrive but the ceasefire is looking increasingly shaky. (11 November).
Amid allegations of ceasefire violations, rebel groups turn down an invitation from President Laurent Kabila to take part in a national dialogue on reconciliation, placing peace at risk (30 October).
Rebels accuse government of breaking truce (2 October).
Rebel groups reject talks (16 September).
After a year of thwarted attempts to end the civil war, a major step towards peace is taken as the last rebel group, Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD), signs the ceasefire agreement. (31 August).
Troops from Uganda and Rwanda backing rival rebel factions clash fiercely in the city of Kisangani, prompting frantic diplomatic efforts to ease tensions. (15 August).
Movement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC) rebel group signs the ceasefire agreement (1 August).
A ceasefire is agreed and signed in Lusaka by all sides in the conflict except two rebel groups, who are locked in a factional dispute and pledge to carry on fighting. Six countries (Angola, DR Congo, Namibia, Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe) sign accord (11 July).
Key points of the 1999 DRC Peace Accord:
- Call for the cessation of hostilities;
- UN Security Council requested to send a peacekeeping force;
- Alternatively OAU will be mandated to carry out peacekeeping operations;
- Joint military commanders for each of the signatories will also oversee peace process;
- All armed forces will remain in current positions until agreement comes into force when they will be sent to designated bases by peacekeeping forces;
- Congolese parties will administer areas they control until interim arrangement is in place to re-establish a central authority;
- Call for disarmament of all rebel forces; and
- Special taskforce under joint military control will track down mass killers and human rights abusers and bring them to justice.
The Ceasefire agreement created two main structures - the Joint Military Commission (JMC) and the Political Committee composed of ministers of foreign affairs and defence - to oversee the implementation of the agreement. The two bodies have held several meetings in pursuance of their mandate.
Momentum grows towards finding a peaceful settlement to the conflict, despite the capture by rebels of Manono, President Kabila's hometown.
Congolese rebels take control of Manono (8 June).
Mandela calls Congo ceasefire summit (2 June).
Rwanda declares unilateral ceasefire (28 May).
Rebel divisions emerge as the Rwanda-backed RCD rebel group in Goma ousts leader Wamba dia Wamba. Dr Emile Ilunga replaces him (19 May).
Government forces bomb rebel towns (12 May).
Uganda plays down Sirte Agreement while Rwanda dismisses the Congo peace deal (20 April).
An agreement brokered by Colonel Gaddafi is reached in Libya to help end the fighting, but is immediately criticised. The Sirte Agreement is signed between Uganda and DRC (18 April).
UN Security Council passes Resolution 1234 (9 April).
Zimbabwe denies that 80 soldiers are killed by rebels in fierce fighting in the east, as government forces and their backers seek to halt a rebel advance towards the key diamond-rich town of Mbuji-Mayi.
In Kinshasa, Britain becomes embroiled in a spying row after the expulsion of five officials.
Britain recalls ambassador (12 March).
Rebels say they have launched a major new offensive on three fronts in the north and the southeast as refugees flee the fighting. (16 February).
There are reports of several massacres, including one of up to 500 civilians over the New Year, as Zimbabwe admits receiving support from other countries in the region.
Efforts to halt Africa's "first world war" make little progress at the OAU as rebels accuse Angolan and Zimbabwean troops of launching a counter-offensive in the northwest. Africa summit ends in deadlock (18 December).
Government offensive in Congo (5 December).
Rwanda acknowledges for the first time that its forces are fighting on the side of rebels, as the Uganda-backed MLC advances in the north.
Inconclusive end to Botswana talks (20-21 November).
Franco-Africa summit in Paris (11 November).
Allies pledge new offensive (2 November).
Rebels capture the government stronghold of Kindu in the east as more peace talks break down, this time in Lusaka. Lusaka peace talks fail (28 October).
Rebels capture Kindu (13 October).
The capital, Kinshasa, comes close to running out of food, while rebels face defeat in the west and thousands of the rebels who narrowly failed to reach Kinshasa are captured.
Addis peace talks break down (12 September).
Kinshasa 'four days from starvation' (9 September).
UN Summit on the Congo.
Second Victoria Falls Peace Meeting (7 September).
Rebels 'ready for long war'.
Rebel forces, backed by Rwandan and Ugandan forces make dramatic advances across the country advancing to the capital, and causing the evacuation of foreigners and diplomats. The intervention of troops from Zimbabwe, Namibia and Angola turns the tide and the rebels are pushed back.
Angola admits fighting rebels.
Rwanda warns it may invade DRC (31 August).
Congo rebels quit Matadi.
Kinshasa imposes curfew.
Pretoria Summit is held (23 August).
Congo rebels advance on Kinshasa (22 August).
Kabila returns to Kinshasa (16 August).
US closes Kinshasa embassy, foreigners evacuate (15 August).
First Victoria Falls Peace talks fail to secure ceasefire (7 August).
Rebels make gains as fighting spreads (6 August).
Fighting rages in rebel-held Bukavu (4 August).
War breaks out in DRC (2 August).