2006 in retrospect: peace at last in DRC SANF 06 no 111, December 2006
The curtain comes down on 2006 amid great optimism in southern Africa over a return to lasting peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the dawn of the official countdown to a regional free trade zone slated for 2008.
2006 - the year Mozambique reclaimed its own SANF 06 no 110, December 2006
The recent visit to the United Kingdom (UK) by President Armando Guebuza capped a year full of achievements for Mozambique.
Preliminary results give Ravalomanana victory in Madagascar polls SANF 06 no 109, December 2006
Marc Ravalomanana is poised for a second term as Madagascar's president as preliminary results point to a comfortable lead for the incumbent leader in 3 December presidential polls.
SADC ministers endorse draft gender protocol SANF 06 no 108, December 2006
Southern Africa has started consultations that will lead to the development of a protocol on gender and accelerate the implementation of regional commitments to create equal opportunities for women and men.
Final Madagascar poll results expected within 20 days of vote counting SANF 06 no 107, December 2006
Counting of votes has started in the 3 December Madagascar presidential elections and final results are expected within 20 days of receipt of the tally from the last polling station.
SADC sends observer mission to Madagascar SANF 06 no 106, November 2006
Southern Africa has launched its mission to observe Madagascar's eighth presidential polls since the Indian Ocean island attained independence in 1965.
Africa, South America seek to strengthen cooperation SANF 06 no 105, November 2006
Cooperation between Africa and South America will be on the agenda when leaders from the two continents meet in Nigeria on 30 November for an inaugural summit.
The economy dominates Madagascar polls SANF 06 no 104, November 2006
Improvement of living standards and a smooth transition of political institutions have become the main campaign issues as Madagascar edges closer to D-Day on 3 December.
Elections advisory body planned for southern Africa SANF 06 no 103, November 2006
A regional electoral advisory body and human rights commission are on the cards in 2007 as southern Africa moves to strengthen its democratisation process.
Africa-China relations move to a higher pedestal SANF 06 no 102, November 2006
China-Africa relations have strengthened significantly following the milestone Beijing summit whose main outcome was an ambitious roadmap to guide cooperation between the two sides for the period 2007-2009.
Voter registration kicks off Angola's electoral process SANF 06 no 101, November 2006
When President Eduardo dos Santos raised his newly-issued multicoloured voter registration card to journalists and his party supporters on 15 November, it signalled the official start of a process that could lead to Angola holding its first elections in 15 years as early as by the end of 2007.
COSAFA reviews state of football in SADC, elects new president SANF 06 no 100, November 2006
The state of southern Africa's football comes under the spotlight when the sport's administrators meet in Botswana on 2 December for a crucial meeting that will also decide who leads the region for the next five years.
Kabila wins in DRC and calls for unity SANF 06 no 99, November 2006
The Congolese people have given Joseph Kabila another chance to continue with economic and political reforms that have so far ensured a smooth transition from war to stability in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
Old and new faces in Frelimo Central Committee SANF 06 no 98, November 2006
The photo of the new Central Committee of Mozambique's ruling Frelimo party elected at the Ninth Congress has most of the old recognisable faces and a few notable young ones.
Political alliances, ethnicity to decide DRC poll outcome SANF 06 no 97, November 2006
Ethnicity and the strength of inter-party alliances could emerge as the deciding factors as the Congolese eagerly await the outcome of a presidential run-off held in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) on 29 October.
Cahora Bassa finally in Mozambican hands SANF 06 no 96, November 2006
Mozambique has finally claimed legal ownership of the giant Cahora Bassa dam that provides electricity to several countries in southern Africa.
Economic, political and cultural cooperation to dominate Africa-China Summit SANF 06 no 95, October 2006
The role of the private sector as well as cultural and political ties come under the spotlight when more than 40 African leaders converge on Beijing for the Africa-China Summit set for 3-5 November.
FINAL COMMUNIQUÉ OF THE SADC EXTRAORDINARY SUMMIT OF THE HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT TO CONSIDER THE REGIONAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL INTEGRATION
The SADC Extraordinary Summit of Heads of State and Government was held on 23rd October 2006, at Midrand, South Africa.
Johannesburg International Airport to be renamed O.R. Tambo SANF 06 no 94, October 2006
Oliver Reginald Kaizana Tambo was leader of the African National Congress (ANC) for 23 years in exile, while Nelson Mandela was imprisoned.
13 candidates to challenge Ravalomanana in Madagascar polls SANF 06 no 93, October 2006
Madagascar will complete southern Africa's 2006 calendar for presidential elections with its 3 December poll that has attracted 13 challengers to face incumbent President Marc Ravalomanana.
SADC leaders converge in South Africa for extraordinary summit SANF 06 no 92, October 2006
Southern African leaders converge in South Africa on 23 October for an extraordinary summit called to discuss economic integration in the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
Focus shifts to DRC once more as election run-off approaches SANF 06 no 91, October 2006
With less than two weeks to go before D-Day in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), southern Africa anxiously awaits the outcome of a presidential run-off that could mean the difference between peace and a return to civil strife.
Samora Machel, 20 years since 19 October 1986 SANF 06 no 90, October 2006
President Samora's death cast a long shadow over southern Africa, at a time when the region was locked in combat with the apartheid system of racial oppression in South Africa
New Zambian cabinet appointed by President Levy Mwanawasa on 9 October 2006 SANF 06 no 89, October 2006
President: Levy Patrick Mwanawasa
Vice-president: Rupiah Banda
The full cabinet list...
Only five women ministers in Zambia's new cabinet SANF 06 no 88, October 2006
Re-elected Zambian President Levy Mwanawasa has announced a new cabinet that contains only five women holding full ministerial positions out of the total 21.
Samora Machel remembered, 20 years on SANF 06 no 87, October 2006
Southern Africa will commemorate in October the 20th anniversary of the death of Samora Moises Machel, Mozambique's first president and leader of the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo).
Mwanawasa gets second chance to lead Zambia's economic renaissance SANF 06 no 86, October 2006
President Levy Mwanawasa has been sworn in for a second term of office and another chance to advance Zambia's economic renaissance.
Zambian polls credible, free and fair: SADC SANF 06 no 85, October 2006
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has described the Zambian elections as peaceful, transparent, well-managed and credible.
Sata takes early lead in Zambian presidential elections SANF 06 no 84, September 2006
Opposition candidate, Michael Sata, has taken an early lead as vote counting continues in Zambia's presidential elections held on 28 September.
Expectant mood as Zambians vote for new leadership SANF 06 no 83, September 2006
There was a high turnout as Zambians queued at the 60,000 polling stations across the country to vote in tripartite polls on 28 September.
Excitement as Zambia tests new voter registration system SANF 06 no 82, September 2006
Zambia faces a litmus test on 28 September when it rolls out a computerised voter registration system and assesses its compliance with regional electoral principles and guidelines.
DRC on course to new political dispensation SANF 06 no 81, September 2006
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) peace process is firmly on the path towards a new political dispensation, with one foot already in the doorway following the historic 22 September inauguration of the parliament.
Election fever grips Zambia SANF 06 no 80, September 2006
Political campaigns, banners and rallies have stolen the limelight in Zambia as the southern African country heads towards the 28 September presidential and parliamentary elections.
Observers deploy teams for Zambian polls SANF 06 no 79, September 2006
Teams from the Southern African Development Community (SADC), African Union (AU), European Union and SADC Parliamentary Forum (SADC PF) will observe Zambia's fourth multiparty democratic elections set for 28 September.
African broadcasters urged to cooperate in co-production SANF 06 no 78, September 2006
Africa broadcasters can equal their western counterparts, if only they can be better trained and investment is made in newer communication technologies.
Number of women contesting Zambian polls "low and disappointing" SANF 06 no 77, September 2006
Zambian elections on 28 September are on course but for lack of women representation, which is down from five years ago.
DRC Supreme Court rejects 29 October runoff date SANF 06 no 76, September 2006
The election runoff in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is now in doubt after a ruling by the Supreme Court that the 29 October date contradicts the new constitution.
Southern Africa's sporting fiesta begins in 2010 SANF 06 no 75, September 2006
Southern Africa has a mouth-watering sports diary from 2010 to 2011 when the region will host two prestigious continental tournaments plus the coveted FIFA World Cup finals.
DRC election run-off faces legal challenge SANF 06 no 74, September 2006
The announcement of results of the landmark poll in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been blocked by legal hitches after the Supreme Court was challenged to rule on the constitutionality of the run-off date set for end of October.
Zambian elections go electronic SANF 06 no 73, August 2006
Zambia is introducing a computerised voter system as part of new security measures aimed at boosting voter confidence ahead of the fourth multi-party elections set for 28 September.
New stadiums planned as Zambia prepares for 2011 pan-African games SANF 06 no 72, August 2006
Zambia plans to construct three new stadiums over the next four years to boost its sporting infrastructure ahead of 2011 when the All-Africa Games jamboree comes to Lusaka.
SADC moves another step closer to regional integration SANF 06 no 71, August 2006
The annual summit of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) ended in Lesotho with an undertaking to improve the investment climate and a call for serious introspection by countries as a Free Trade Area target fast approaches.
Run-off called as DRC polls fail to separate Kabila and Bemba SANF 06 no 70, August 2006
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is headed for a run-off tentatively set for 29 October after incumbent President Joseph Kabila and former rebel leader, Jean-Pierre Bemba, led the polls but failed to amass the required 50 percent-plus-one vote.
SADC Summit calls for urgent resolution of multiple membership dilemma SANF 06 no 69, August 2006
Southern African leaders have called an extraordinary summit before the end of October to urgently look into sticky issues of multiple membership and find ways of speeding up implementation of the regional integration agenda.
SADC region pledges support for DRC post-election period SANF 06 no 68, August 2006
Southern Africa has pledged to assist the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to build strong institutions and promote lasting peace following the successful holding of elections in July.
Mogae urges greater commitment to regional integration SANF 06 no 67, August 2006
The march towards regional integration in southern Africa has remained painstakingly slow and commitment by member countries has been identified as one of the main fetters to the creation of a common vision.
SADC eyes further visa exemptions as region targets cross-border movement of people SANF 06 no 66, August 2006
Southern African countries have agreed to relax visa requirements while member states upgrade their operational systems in line with a regional plan to facilitate the movement of people across borders.
Angola spurs southern African economic growth SANF 06 no 65, August 2006
The southern African economy is projected to grow by six percent in 2006 but countries will have to raise their efforts if the region is to meet the global target necessary to eradicate poverty.
Zambia to test new electoral law as five vie for presidency SANF 06 no 64, August 2006
Zambia is cruising towards the fourth multi-party elections since independence in 1964 with a major test centred on meeting the new electoral law and the 2003 SADC electoral standards and guidelines.
The economy, peace to feature at SADC Maseru summit SANF 06 no 63, August 2006
Southern African leaders are expected to approve a protocol on finance and investment as well as discuss other pertinent regional issues when they gather for an annual regional summit in Lesotho from 17-18 August.
Africa benefits from links with China, must boost capacities SANF 06 no 62, August 2006
Africa stands to benefit from its deepening ties with China but the continent has its work cut out in terms of building capacities to match the Chinese economic juggernaut, according a recent study on the impact of China on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
DRC elections credible, fair and transparent – SADC SANF 06 no 61, August 2006
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has described recent elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo as “peaceful, credible and transparent”.
Final DRC election results due by 31 August SANF 06 no 60, August 2006
Final results from elections held in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) will be known by 31 August and the inauguration of the president-elect is set for 10 September, if there is a clear winner from the first round of voting.
The economy a major factor in DRC elections SANF 06 no 59, July 2006
The economy of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and how the various political parties will manage the vast mineral resources could determine the outcome of polls set for 30 July.
DRC candidates contest for 189 constituencies SANF 06 no 58, July 2006
Parliamentary candidates will contest for 189 constituencies in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) elections set for Sunday, 30 July.
DRC polls provide impetus for regional peace and security SANF 06 no 57, July 2006
The search for lasting peace and security is being given top priority in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) presidential and parliamentary elections set for Sunday, 30 July.
DRC elections capture the attention of Africa SANF 06 no 56, July 2006
More than 25 million voters are expected to elect a president and new members of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) legislature in an election on 30 July that has captured the attention of the African continent.
Southern Africa in search of energy self-sustenance SANF 06 no 55, July 2006
Behavioural experts say it takes the presence of a shark in the water to get the best out of a fish. This will keep the fish active and vigilant to its environment.
Preparations for 2010 move into top gear as curtain comes down on Germany 2006 SANF 06 no 54, July 2006
Attention has shifted to South Africa which is set to host the 2010 World Cup finals following the close of the 2006 soccer fiesta in Germany.
Key infrastructure projects on cards in southern Africa SANF 06 no 53, July 2006
Southern Africa is investing in the construction of bridges and railway infrastructure as a way of opening up the region and deepening integration.
Campaign rallies and banners at last in DRC SANF 06 no 52, June 2006
Campaigning has started in the watershed Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) elections set for 30 July and the campaign materials tell the story of a country desperate for peace.
Africa reviews progress towards economic community SANF 06 no 51, June 2006
The challenges of harmonising Africa's regional economic communities (RECs) will come under the spotlight when the continent's leaders converge in the Gambia for the seventh ordinary session of the African Union (AU) from 1-2 July.
Mauritius eyes southern Africa as US, EU textile exports flounder SANF 06 no 50, June 2006
Mauritius is shifting attention to southern Africa as it seeks to revive the fortunes of its key textiles sector affected by the 2005 removal of export privileges into the United States and European Union (EU).
Southern Africa expects three presidential polls in five months SANF 06 no 49, June 2006
Southern Africa is looking ahead to a busy second half of 2006 with presidential and general elections lined up in three countries, with more focus on the 30 July Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) polls.
Food security prospects brighten for southern Africa SANF 06 no 48, June 2006
Food security prospects in southern Africa have brightened amid indications that most countries in the region are poised for a bumper harvest this year.
Angola carries southern Africa's dreams at World Cup SANF 06 no 47, June 2006
Angolan soccer players march onto the pitch in Cologne for their opening match against Portugal on 11 June with two issues on their minds. They will be aiming for a sensational victory over their former colonial masters and will be hoping to restore the pride of a region starved for years of success in football.
WTO agriculture deal still far off SANF 06 no 46, May 2006
The future of a new international deal on agriculture hangs by a thread as agreement remains elusive on key targets that will signal the official start of negotiations.
Africa looks for ways of sustaining growth SANF 06 no 45, May 2006
Top African political and business leaders meet in South Africa for the World Economic Forum on Africa to discuss steps to sustain the current economic growth on the continent and launch a public-private partnership that aims to address the root causes of poverty.
Rehabilitation work starts on Nacala railway line SANF 06 no 44, May 2006
Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia are rehabilitating the railway line in the Nacala Development Corridor, which will open a key transportation route for the three countries.
Zambia's inflation hits historic single SANF 06 no 43, May 2006
Zambia's inflation tapped a single digit of 9.4 percent in April following tight fiscal policies and reduced government spending.
NEPAD drafts Africa's youths into ICT development agenda SANF 06 no 42, May 2006
Africa's effort to accelerate development through increased Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) has gained momentum with the formation of the NEPAD e-Africa Youth Programme that is intended to generate awareness on information society.
New partnership creates opportunities for southern Africa SANF 06 no 41, May 2006
Southern Africa has struck a new deal with its International Cooperating Partners (ICPs) as this region of more than 230 million people makes steady progress towards establishing a Common Market by 2015.
Tjitendero a visionary with deep commitment to his region and people SANF 06 no 40, May 2006
It is rare in our region or any other, to find a visionary endowed also with the practical skills of management, integrity and implementation.
A continental institution harnessing “One Africa, One Voice” SANF 06 no 39, May 2006
The Pan African Parliament is meeting in its fifth ordinary session, and is starting to address the magnitude of its challenges.
Defection law, presidential age dominate Malawi constitutional debate SANF 06 no 38, May 2006
Malawi has embarked on the second amendment of its Constitution but two issues have assumed centre-stage – whether to limit the age of presidential candidates to 70 years or to lift a ban on floor crossing by sitting legislators.
SADC strengthens partnerships to accelerate development SANF 06 no 37, April 2006
Southern Africa is set to launch a new partnership initiative from a high-level consultative conference with its International Cooperating Partners (ICPs) and other stakeholders.
SADC-EU trade negotiations: The overlapping membership conundrum SANF 06 no 36, April 2006
The challenges of overlapping memberships of regional groupings are coming to the fore as African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries seek a new economic partnership with the European Union (EU).
Malawi invests in irrigation to boost food security SANF 06 no 35, April 2006
Malawi has embarked on a massive programme to increase the size of land under irrigated crops as the drought-prone southern African country moves to bolster food security.
Crucial role for civilians in SADC peacekeeping missions SANF 06 no 34, April 2006
Civil society is a crucial cog in peacekeeping missions and southern Africa is building a standby force that relies on active participation by civilians.
South Africa steps up 2010 preparations as region joins race SANF 06 no 33, April 2006
South Africa is speeding up preparations for the 2010 World Cup finals with plans to prepare 10 stadiums as southern African steps up efforts to maximise benefits from the world's biggest soccer event.
South Africa pledges support for DRC electoral process SANF 06 no 32, March 2006
Southern Africa is strengthening regional cooperation in disaster management with member states extending rescue efforts to neighbouring countries.
South Africa pledges support for DRC electoral process SANF 06 no 31, March 2006
South Africa has pledged to assist the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) establish lasting peace by supporting the electoral process leading to the holding of the first democratic polls in more than four decades.
Food security concerns pose GMO challenges for southern Africa SANF 06 no 30, March 2006
Southern Africa is projecting a maize surplus of more than two million tonnes during the 2005/06 agricultural season but divergent views on genetically modified crops raise interesting questions about the role of intra-regional trade in bridging shortfalls in some member states.
Liberation movements dominate southern African politics SANF 06 no 29, March 2006
The African National Congress (ANC) victory in the South African local government elections in early March reaffirms the dominance of former liberation movements in southern African politics and governance.
Nujoma goes back to school as Namibia turns 16 SANF 06 no 28, March 2006
Namibia's first post-independence president, Sam Nujoma, has gone back to school after a successful career as a freedom fighter who led the southern African country to self rule 16 years ago.
Local actions vital as region marks World Water Day SANF 06 no 27, March 2006
Southern Africa joins the rest of the world in commemorating World Water Day on 22 March amid efforts by the global water polity to bring water governance issues down to grass-root levels.
New electoral law clears the way for DRC elections SANF 06 no 26, March 2006
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has passed a new electoral law that sets stringent registration conditions for aspiring presidential candidates and paves the way for holding of the much-awaited elections.
SADC celebrates women's day, calls for gender-friendly legislation SANF 06 no 25, March 2006
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has been urged to formulate gender-friendly laws in line with regionally and internationally agreed targets.
Oscar award raises southern Africa's filmmaking profile SANF 06 no 24, March 2006
A South African drama film wrote its own piece of history and effectively raised the region's profile as an emerging giant in international filmmaking when it won the Oscar for the best foreign language movie.
New chemical law blocks Africa's reach to Europe SANF 06 no 23, March 2006
Africa's mining industry and other exporters to the European Union could soon find it difficult to sell their products in the EU following the passing of a new law governing the use of chemicals in products.
Joint infrastructure development planned for 2010 World Cup SANF 06 no 22, February 2006
Southern Africa is developing a joint strategy to improve infrastructure ahead of the soccer World Cup to be hosted by South Africa in 2010.
Earthquake tests regional disaster preparedness SANF 06 no 21, February 2006
Most Maputo and Beira residents were forced to share public places with street children and vagrants in the early hours of 23 February as they competed for a space to spend the night.
New energy pact to boost supply in SADC SANF 06 no 20, February 2006
Southern African countries have taken a decisive step to avert a looming energy shortfall by signing a revised agreement that brings in new players and takes into account present realities in the sector.
Southern Africa has solutions to food insecurity SANF 06 no 19, February 2006
Southern Africa has developed solutions to address food insecurity but is moving too slowly on implementation, according to government ministers from the region.
Infrastructure master plan on the cards for southern Africa SANF 06 no 18, February 2006
The southern African region is drawing up an infrastructure development master plan to revamp inter-state transport and communications networks.
Consolidation of peace remains a challenge SANF 06 no 17, February 2006
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is putting in place mechanisms to assist some member states to consolidate peace processes and to address insecurity emanating from small arms proliferation and internally displaced persons.
SADC pushes for affirmative action to accelerate gender equality SANF 06 no 16, February 2006
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is pressing for affirmative action to speed up progress towards substantive equality between women and men at all levels of decision-making.
SADC identifies priority intervention areas SANF 06 no 15, February 2006
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has identified 12 main intervention areas that will drive the region's integration and development agenda until 2015.
Infrastructure, food security and cooperation to top SADC meeting SANF 06 no 14, February 2006
Infrastructure development, food security and approval of budgets for the region's priority development projects are expected to top the agenda of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Council of Ministers set for Botswana on 23-24 February.
30 years after Soweto, Mbeki pledges to accelerate change SANF 06 no 13, February 2006
South African President Thabo Mbeki invoked several historical markers to illustrate the country's advances in his recent State of the Nation address “in this year of the 30th anniversary of the Soweto uprising.”
Africa declares Second Decade of Education SANF 06 no 12, February 2006
Africa has declared the next 10 years as the Second Decade of Education and has launched an appeal to the international community for technical and financial assistance to see it attain its target of extending access to all children.
Building hope through music SANF 06 no 11, February 2006
For 12 hours on 28 January, Machava Stadium on the outskirts of Maputo became the unofficial capital of art in southern Africa.
Infrastructure key to Africa's success: WEF SANF 06 no 10, February 2006
The world's top business and civil society leaders say the solution to Africa's quest to embark on a sustainable growth path rests on infrastructural development, levelling of the playing field in global trade matters and long-term investment in education.
Political parties brace for DRC polls SANF 06 no 9, February 2006
At least five candidates have registered to contest the presidency of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in elections set for April while about 300 political parties are expected to participate in the polls.
Knowledge management key to food security SANF 06 no 8, January 2006
Information and knowledge management are emerging as some of the main interventions pursued by drought-prone southern Africa to attain food sustenance and disaster preparedness.
Education, economic cooperation to dominate AU summit SANF 06 no 7, January 2006
Creation of a continental watchdog on education and culture, progress towards the African Economic Community and changes to the African Union corporate identity are expected to dominate this month's AU summit in the Sudan.
Slow progress on phase out of leaded fuel in SADC SANF 06 no 6, January 2006
At least four southern African countries beat the 1 January deadline to phase out leaded fuel but a lot of work still needs to be done before the dream of having “cleaner” fuels becomes a reality across the region.
Southern Africa out to reclaim Nations Cup SANF 06 no 5, January 2006
Regional pride will be at stake when five teams from southern Africa descend on Egypt for a battle to decide Africa's best football playing nations.
DRC peace prospects brighten as Tshisekedi joins electoral race SANF 06 no 4, January 2006
Prospects for the first democratic elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo in over 40 years and a return to sustainable peace have brightened following the decision by key opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi to participate in the March polls.
Mozambique remains vulnerable to floods SANF 06 no 03, January 2006
The heavy rains and storms that recently buffeted parts of central and northern Mozambique have again exposed the vulnerability of the country and the surrounding areas to the weak elements in disaster preparedness.
United Republic of Tanzania Government Cabinet List January 2006 SANF 06 no 2, January 2006
Referendum results pave way for DRC polls SANF 06 no 1, January 2006
The people of the Democratic Republic of Congo have overwhelmingly endorsed a new constitution, laying the groundwork for what could be the country's first democratic elections since independence in 1960.